Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

v3.10.0.1
SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”).
a.
Principles of consolidation:
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Arotech and its wholly owned subsidiaries. Intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated upon consolidation. The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
b.
Financial Statements in U.S. Dollars:
The United States dollar (“U.S. dollar”) is the currency of the primary economic environment in which the Company’s U.S. subsidiaries operate and the Company has adopted and are using the U.S. dollar as our functional currency. Transactions and balances originally denominated in U.S. dollars are presented at the original amounts. Accordingly, monetary accounts maintained in currencies other than dollars are re-measured into dollars, with resulting gains and losses reflected in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income as financial income or expenses, as appropriate. 
In the first quarter of 2018, the Company concluded that the functional currency for our Israeli subsidiary, Epsilor-EFL, changed from the New Israeli Shekel (“NIS”) to the U.S. dollar. The primary reason for the change in functional currencies is due to a change in Epsilor-EFL operations whereby the majority of its contracts and material costs are anticipated to be sourced in U.S. dollars. The Company believes that the change in functional currency for this business was necessary as it reflects the primary economic environment in which Epsilor-EFL now operates.  
The change in functional currency for Epsilor-EFL is accounted for prospectively from January 1, 2018, and prior year financial statements have not been restated for the change in functional currency. The financial statements of Epsilor-EFL are now reported in U.S. dollars. All balance sheet accounts were translated using the exchange rates in effect at the time of the change in functional currency.  The statements of comprehensive income and cash flows are also reported in U.S. dollars. 
c.
Cash equivalents:
Cash equivalents are short-term highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to cash with original maturities of three months or less when acquired.
d.
Restricted collateral deposits:
Restricted collateral deposits are primarily invested in highly liquid deposits which are used as security for the Company’s performance guarantees at Epsilor-EFL.
e.
Inventories:
Inventory costs include material, labor, and manufacturing overhead costs, including depreciation and amortization expense associated with the manufacture and distribution of the Company’s products.  Inventories are stated at lower of cost or net realizable value and expense estimates are made for excess and obsolete inventories.  Based on this evaluation, provisions are made to write inventory down to its net realizable value. In 2018, 2017, and 2016, the Company wrote off approximately $631,021, $407,202, and $359,346, respectively, of obsolete inventory, which has been included in the cost of revenues.  Cost is determined by weighted average method.
f.
Property and equipment:
Depreciation is calculated by the straight-line method over the following estimated useful lives of the assets:
 
Depreciable life (in years)
 
 
Computers and related equipment
3 to 5
Motor vehicles
5 to 7
Office furniture and equipment
3 to 5
Machinery, equipment and installations
5 to 10
Buildings
30
Land
Not depreciated
Leasehold improvements
Shorter of the term of the lease or the life of the asset
Demo inventory
3 to 5

The Company tests long-lived asset groups for recoverability when changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable, for example, when there are material adverse changes in projected revenues or expenses, significant underperformance relative to historical or projected operating results, or significant negative industry or economic trends. The Company also performs a test for recoverability when management has committed to a plan to sell or otherwise dispose of an asset group. The Company evaluates recoverability of an asset group by comparing its carrying value to the future net undiscounted cash flows that the Company expects will be generated by the asset group. If the comparison indicates that the carrying value of an asset group is not recoverable, the Company recognizes an impairment loss for the excess of carrying value over the estimated fair value. When the Company recognizes an impairment loss for assets to be held and used, the Company depreciates the adjusted carrying amount of those assets over their remaining useful life. No impairment losses were recognized in the Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income for all periods presented.
g.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets:
Certain business acquisitions have resulted in the recording of goodwill and indefinite-life intangible assets, primarily trademark assets, which are not amortized.
Goodwill is tested for impairment at the reporting unit level, which is the operating segment or one level below the operating segment, also known as a component. Two or more components of an operating segment shall be aggregated into a single reporting unit if the components have similar economic characteristics, based on an assessment of various factors. The Company has determined that the Training and Simulation Division and the Power System Division segments are separate reporting units.
The Company has historically performed its annual goodwill impairment test as of December 31 each year. During the quarter ended September 30, 2018, the Company voluntarily changed is annual impairment assessment date from December 31 to October 1. The Company believes this change in measurement date, which represents a change in method of applying an accounting principle, is preferable under the circumstances as it better aligns with its forecasting and annual budgeting process timeline. The Company does not believe that change in valuation date produced different impairment results.
When testing goodwill for impairment, the Company may conduct a qualitative assessment by analyzing a variety of factors that could influence the fair value of the reporting unit or indefinite-life intangible, including, but not limited to: the results of prior quantitative assessments performed; changes in the carrying amount of the reporting unit or indefinite-life intangible; actual and projected revenue and operating margin; relevant market data for both the Company and its peer companies; industry outlooks; macroeconomic conditions; liquidity; changes in key personnel; and the Company’s competitive position. The Company uses significant judgment to evaluate the totality of these events and factors to make the determination of whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit or indefinite-life intangible is less than its carrying value.
If the Company determines that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, it then performs the impairment evaluation using a quantitative assessment. Under the quantitative assessment, the first step identifies whether there is a potential impairment by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit to the carrying amount, including goodwill. If the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds the fair value, then a test is performed to determine the implied fair value of goodwill. An impairment loss is recognized based on the amount that the carrying amount of goodwill exceeds the implied fair value. When measuring the fair value of its reporting units in the quantitative assessment, the Company uses widely accepted valuation techniques, applying a combination of the income approach (discounted cash flows) and market approach (market multiples). When preparing discounted cash flow models under the income approach, the Company uses internal forecasts to estimate future cash flows expected to be generated by the reporting units. To discount these cash flows, the Company uses the expected cost of equity, determined by using a capital asset pricing model. The Company believes the discount rates used appropriately reflect the risks and uncertainties in the financial markets generally and specifically in the Company’s internally-developed forecasts. When using market multiples under the market approach, the Company applies comparable publicly traded companies’ multiples (e.g., earnings or revenues) to its reporting units’ actual results.
h.
Revenue recognition:
The Company accounts for revenue recognition in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which the Company adopted on January 1, 2018, using the modified retrospective transition approach to all contracts. The Company evaluated the distinct performance obligations and the pattern of revenue recognition of its significant contracts upon adoption of the standard. Consequently, after its review of contracts in each revenue stream, the Company concluded that the impact of adopting the standard did not have an impact to its consolidated balance sheets, statements of operations, changes in stockholders’ equity, or cash flows.
During 2018, 2017, and 2016, the Company recognized revenues from (i) the sale and customization of interactive training systems (Training and Simulation Division); (ii) maintenance services in connection with such systems (Training and Simulation Division); (iii) the sale of batteries, chargers and adapters, and custom power solutions (Power Systems Division); and (iv) the sale of lifejacket lights (Power Systems Division).
The Company determines its revenue recognition through the following steps:
Identification of the contract, or contracts, with a customer
Identification of the performance obligations within the contract
Determination of the transaction price
Allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations within the contract
Recognition of revenue when, or as the performance obligation has been satisfied
Performance Obligations. A performance obligation is a promise in a contract to transfer a distinct good or service to the customer, and is the unit of account in ASC Topic 606. A contract transaction price is allocated to each distinct performance obligation and recognized as revenue when, or as, the performance obligation is satisfied. In assessing the recognition of revenue, the Company evaluates whether two or more contracts should be combined and accounted for as one contract and if the combined or single contract should be accounted for as multiple performance obligations which could change the amount of revenue and profit (loss) recorded in a period. The majority of the Company’s contracts with customers are accounted for as one performance obligation, as the majority of tasks and services is part of a single project or capability. As these contracts are typically a customized customer-specific solution, the Company uses the expected cost plus margin approach to estimate the standalone selling price of each performance obligation. For contracts with multiple performance obligations, the Company allocates the contracts transaction price to each performance obligation using its best estimate of the standalone selling price of each distinct good or service in the contract.
The Company also offers maintenance and support agreements (“warranties”) for many of its products. The specific terms and conditions of those warranties vary depending upon the product sold and country in which the product is sold but typically are for one to two years. The Company estimates its warranty liability by deferring a percentage of the original invoice amount and recording it as Deferred Revenue in its balance sheet. The Company periodically assesses the adequacy of its reserves and adjusts the percentage of revenue deferred as necessary. The warranty revenue is recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the maintenance and support services. The standalone selling price for extending a warranty is determined based on the original invoice price charged when sold separately or upon renewal. See Note 15, “Warranty,” for details of warranty liabilities.
The Company’s performance obligations are satisfied over time as work progresses or at a point in time. Revenue from products and services transferred to customers over time accounted for 91%, 93%, and 90% of its revenue for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016, respectively. Substantially all of the Company’s revenue in the Training and Simulation Division and the U.S. Power Systems Division is recognized over time. Typically, revenue is recognized over time using an input measure (e.g., costs incurred to date relative to total estimated costs at completion) to measure progress. Contract costs include labor, material, and overhead.
On December 31, 2018, the Company had $64.8 million in expected future revenue relating to performance obligations currently in progress, which it also refers to as total backlog. The Company expects to recognize approximately 76% of its backlog as revenue in 2019, and the remaining 24% thereafter.
Contract Estimates. Accounting for long-term contracts and programs involves the use of various techniques to estimate total contract revenue and costs. For long-term contracts, the Company estimates the profit on a contract as the difference between the total estimated revenue and expected costs to complete a contract and recognize that profit over the life of the contract.
Contract estimates are based on various assumptions to project the outcome of future events that can exceed a year. These assumptions include labor productivity and availability; the complexity of the work to be performed; the cost and availability of materials; the performance of subcontractors; and the availability and timing of funding from the customer.
As a significant change in one or more of these estimates could affect the profitability of its contracts, the Company reviews and updates its contract-related estimates quarterly. The Company recognizes adjustments in estimated profit on contracts under the cumulative catch-up method. Under this method, the impact of the adjustment on profit recorded to date is recognized in the period the adjustment is identified. Revenue and profit in future periods of contract performance is recognized using the adjusted estimate. If at any time the estimate of contract profitability indicates an anticipated loss on the contract, the Company recognizes the total loss in the quarter it is identified.
The aggregate impact of adjustments in contract estimates to net income (loss) is presented below:
 
Twelve months ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
Training and Simulation Division
 
Power Systems Division
 
Training and Simulation Division
 
Power Systems Division
 
Training and Simulation Division
 
Power Systems Division
Net income (loss)
$
659,037

 
$
656,665

 
$
955,022

 
$
40,888

 
$
1,856,664

 
$
(57,384
)

Revenue by Category. As of December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016, the Company’s portfolio of products and services consisted of 471, 457, and 448 active contracts, respectively.
Revenue by major product line was as follows:
 
Twelve months ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Product Revenue
 
 
 
 
 
Air Warfare Simulation
$
16,864,956

 
$
19,231,716

 
$
19,277,541

Vehicle Simulation
21,650,797

 
13,709,762

 
16,598,942

Use-of-Force
14,652,486

 
14,125,824

 
9,114,910

Service Revenue
 
 
 
 
 
Warranty
3,539,931

 
3,187,022

 
1,367,401

Total Training and Simulation Division
$
56,708,170

 
$
50,254,324

 
$
46,358,794

 
 
 
 
 
 
Contract Manufacturing
$
15,120,054

 
$
13,544,017

 
$
17,498,310

Power Distribution and Generation
6,007,668

 
6,948,704

 
4,687,285

Batteries
13,393,716

 
21,537,381

 
19,233,660

Engineering Services and Other
5,370,133

 
6,438,252

 
5,197,703

Total Power Division
$
39,891,571

 
$
48,468,354

 
$
46,616,958

The table below details the percentage of total recognized revenue by type of arrangement as of December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016:
 
Twelve months ended December 31,
Type of Revenue
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Sale of products
94.3
%
 
96.2
%
 
95.3
%
Maintenance and support agreements
3.7
%
 
3.2
%
 
4.3
%
Long term research and development contracts
2.0
%
 
0.6
%
 
0.4
%
Total
100
%
 
100
%
 
100
%
Revenue by contract type was as follows:
 
Training and
Simulation
Division
 
Power Systems
Division
Twelve months ended December 31, 2018
 
 
 
Fixed Price
$
46,789,332

 
$
35,865,009

Cost Reimbursement (Cost Plus)
5,269,145

 
2,929,892

Time and Materials
4,649,693

 
1,096,670

Total
$
56,708,170

 
$
39,891,571

Twelve months ended December 31, 2017
 
 
 
Fixed Price
$
42,042,646

 
$
40,826,800

Cost Reimbursement (Cost Plus)
5,721,623

 
5,992,567

Time and Materials
2,490,055

 
1,648,987

Total
$
50,254,324

 
$
48,468,354

Twelve months ended December 31, 2016
 
 
 
Fixed Price
$
36,804,593

 
$
37,082,800

Cost Reimbursement (Cost Plus)
5,869,540

 
6,448,385

Time and Materials
3,684,661

 
3,085,773

Total
$
46,358,794

 
$
46,616,958


Each of these contract types presents advantages and disadvantages. Typically, the Company assumes more risk with fixed-price contracts. However, these types of contracts offer additional profits when the Company completes the work for less than originally estimated. Cost-reimbursement contracts generally subject the Company to lower risk. Accordingly, the associated base fees are usually lower than fees earned on fixed-price contracts. Under time and materials contracts, the Company’s profit may fluctuate if actual labor-hour costs vary significantly from the negotiated rates.
Revenues from major customers (as a percentage of consolidated revenues):
Other than for sales to various branches of the United States Military, which accounted for 35%, 33%, and 41%, of consolidated continuing revenues for 2018, 2017, and 2016, respectively, one single customer accounted for more than 10% of revenues for any of the three years presented.
Revenue by customer was as follows:
 
Training and
Simulation
Division
 
Power Systems
Division
Twelve months ended December 31, 2018
 
 
 
U.S. Government
 
 
 
Department of Defense (DoD)
$
16,862,856

 
$
3,292,382

Non-DoD
11,699,696

 

Foreign Military Sales (FMS)
2,066,140

 

Total U.S. Government
$
30,628,692

 
$
3,292,382

 
 
 
 
U.S. Commercial
$
19,889,962

 
$
20,542,135

Non-U.S. Government
2,185,308

 
2,345,653

Non-U.S. Commercial
4,004,208

 
13,711,401

Total Revenue
$
56,708,170

 
$
39,891,571

Twelve months ended December 31, 2017
 
 
 
U.S. Government
 
 
 
Department of Defense (DoD)
$
11,056,632

 
$
9,149,874

Non-DoD
11,787,913

 

Foreign Military Sales (FMS)
2,511,023

 

Total U.S. Government
25,355,568

 
9,149,874

 
 
 
 
U.S. Commercial
$
18,895,558

 
$
16,712,654

Non-U.S. Government
3,673,960

 
12,515,981

Non-U.S. Commercial
2,329,238

 
10,089,845

Total Revenue
$
50,254,324

 
$
48,468,354

Twelve months ended December 31, 2016
 
 
 
U.S. Government
 
 
 
Department of Defense (DoD)
$
16,720,606

 
$
11,480,240

Non-DoD
8,908,207

 

Foreign Military Sales (FMS)
1,796,747

 

Total U.S. Government
27,425,560

 
11,480,240

 
 
 
 
U.S. Commercial
$
16,480,123

 
$
16,615,821

Non-U.S. Government
1,868,232

 
7,003,558

Non-U.S. Commercial
584,879

 
11,517,339

Total Revenue
$
46,358,794

 
$
46,616,958


Contract Balances. The timing of revenue recognition, billings and cash collections results in billed accounts receivable, unbilled receivables (contract assets), and customer advances and deposits (contract liabilities) on the Consolidated Balance Sheet. The majority of the Company’s contract amounts are billed as work progresses in accordance with agreed-upon contractual terms, either at periodic intervals (e.g., biweekly or monthly) or upon achievement of contractual milestones. Billing sometimes occurs subsequent to revenue recognition, resulting in contract assets. However, the Company sometimes receives advances or deposits from its customers, particularly on its international contracts, before revenue is recognized, resulting in contract liabilities. These assets and liabilities are reported on the Consolidated Balance Sheet on a contract-by-contract basis at the end of each reporting period.
 
December 31, 2018
 
December 31, 2017
 
Training and Simulation Division
 
Power Systems
Division
 
Total
 
Training and Simulation Division
 
Power Systems
Division
 
Total
Contract Assets - Current
$
10,358,679

 
$
7,509,217

 
$
17,867,896

 
$
7,263,461

 
$
8,831,054

 
$
16,094,515

Contract Liabilities - Current
(6,697,522
)
 
(357,257
)
 
(7,054,779
)
 
(5,860,345
)
 
(917,968
)
 
(6,778,313
)
Net Contract Assets and Liabilities:
$
3,661,157

 
$
7,151,960

 
$
10,813,117

 
$
1,403,116

 
$
7,913,086

 
$
9,316,202


The $1,496,915 increase in the Company’s net contract assets (liabilities) from December 31, 2017 to December 31, 2018 was due to the timing of milestone payments on certain U.S. Government and commercial contracts.
During the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016, the Company recognized $6,305,886, $5,693,192, and $6,622,660 in revenue related to the Company’s contract liabilities at December 31, 2017, 2016, and 2015, respectively.
Deferred revenues also include unearned amounts received under maintenance and support services and customer deposits of $50,000 and $200,608 for 2018 and 2017, respectively.
The Company did not record any provisions for impairment of its unbilled receivables during the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016.
Contract Costs
Certain eligible costs, typically incurred during the initial phases of the Company’s service contracts, are capitalized when the costs related directly to the contract, are expected to be recovered, and generate or enhance resources to be used in satisfying the performance obligation. These costs primarily consist of production design. If the carrying amount is not recoverable, an impairment loss is recognized.
Practical Expedients and Exemptions
The Company has elected the following practical expedients and exemptions as allowed under the new revenue guidance:
Sales Commissions
The Company has elected to expense its sales commissions when incurred because the amortization period is less than one year. These costs are recorded within selling and marketing expenses.
Financing
The Company has elected to not adjust the consideration for the effects of a significant financing component as the term of the majority of contracts is twelve months or less.
Sales Tax
The Company acts as an agent in the collection and remittance of sales taxes. Historically, the Company has excluded these amounts from the calculation of revenue. These taxes will continue to be excluded from the transaction price.
Shipping and Handling Costs
The Company has elected to account for shipping and handling activities that are incurred after the customer obtained control of the product as fulfillment costs rather than a separate service provided to the customer for which consideration would need to be allocated.
The Company will continue to account for shipping and handling as fulfillment costs when these costs are incurred prior to the customer obtaining control.
i.
Trade receivables
Trade receivables include amounts billed and currently due from customers. The amounts are recorded at net estimated realizable value. The value of the Company’s trade receivables when appropriate includes an allowance for estimated uncollectible amounts. The Company calculates an allowance based on its history of write-offs, the assessment of customer creditworthiness, and the age of the outstanding receivables.
As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company’s trade receivables recorded in the consolidated balance sheets were $16,259,809 and $19,258,960, respectively. The Company has not recorded any provisions for doubtful accounts and no reserves have been established at December 31, 2018 or 2017, respectively. The Company believes its exposure to concentrations of credit risk is limited due to the nature of its operations, where a significant number of its contracts are typically a customized customer specific solution.
j.
Research and development cost:
The Company capitalizes certain software development costs, subsequent to the establishment of technological feasibility. Based on the Company’s product development process, technological feasibility is established upon the completion of a working model or a detailed program design. Research and development costs incurred in the process of developing product improvements or new products are generally charged to expenses as incurred. Significant costs incurred by the Company between completion of the working model or a detailed program design and the point at which the product is ready for general release have been capitalized. Capitalized software costs will be amortized using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of the product (three to five years). The Company assesses the net realizable value of this intangible asset on a regular basis by determining whether the amortization of the asset over its remaining life can be recovered through undiscounted future operating cash flows from the specific software product sold. Based on its most recent analysis, management believes that no impairment of capitalized software development costs exists as of December 31, 2018.
In 2018 and 2017, the Training and Simulation Division capitalized $937,616 and $588,014, respectively, in software development costs that will be amortized on a straight-line method over the useful life of the software.
k.
Income taxes:
The Company accounts for income taxes under the asset and liability method, whereby deferred tax assets and liability account balances are determined based on tax credit carryforwards and differences between the financial reporting and the tax basis of assets and liabilities and are measured using the enacted tax rates and laws that will be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse. The Company provides a valuation allowance, if necessary, to reduce deferred tax assets to their estimated realizable value.
Accounting standards prescribe a recognition threshold and measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken in a tax return. The Company must determine whether it is “more-likely-than-not” that a tax position will be sustained upon examination, including resolution of any related appeals or litigation processes, based on the technical merits of the position. Once it is determined that a position meets the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold, the position is measured to determine the amount of benefit to recognize in the financial statements. Uncertain tax positions require determinations and estimated liabilities to be made based on provisions of the tax law which may be subject to change or varying interpretation. If the Company’s determinations and estimates prove to be inaccurate, the resulting adjustments could be material to the Company’s future financial statements. As part of preparing our 2018 consolidated financial statements, the Company identified errors in the accounting for income taxes as described further in Note 3, “Restatement of Previously Issued Consolidated Financial Statements,” and Note 12, “Income Taxes.”
l.
Concentration of credit risk:
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash and cash equivalents, restricted collateral deposits and trade receivables. Cash and cash equivalents are invested mainly in U.S. dollar deposits with the U.S. banks and in NIS with major Israeli banks. Such deposits in the U.S. may be in excess of insured limits and are not insured in other jurisdictions. Management believes that the financial institutions that hold the Company’s investments are financially sound and, accordingly, minimal credit risk exists with respect to these investments.
The trade receivables of the Company are mainly derived from sales to customers located primarily in the United States and Israel along with the countries listed in Note 14, “Segment Information.” Management believes that credit risks are moderated by the diversity of its end customers and geographical sales areas. The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers’ financial condition.
The Company had no off-balance-sheet concentration of credit risk such as foreign exchange contracts, option contracts or other foreign currency hedging arrangements as of December 31, 2018 and 2017.
m.
Basic and diluted net income per share:
Basic net income per share is computed based on the weighted average number of shares of common stock and participating securities outstanding during each year. Diluted net income per share includes the dilutive effect of additional potential common stock issuable under its share-based compensation plans, using the “treasury stock” method. Unvested restricted stock issued to its employees and directors are “participating securities” and as such, are included, net of estimated forfeitures, in the total shares used to calculate the Company’s basic and diluted net income per share. In the event of a net loss, unvested restricted stock awards are excluded from the calculation of both basic and diluted net loss per share. The total weighted average number of shares related to the outstanding common stock equivalents excluded from the calculations of diluted net income per share were none for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016.
n.
Accounting for stock-based compensation:
Stock-based awards to employees are recognized as compensation expense based on the calculated fair value on the date of grant. The costs are amortized over the straight line vesting period. The Company granted restricted stock and restricted stock units in 2018, 2017, and 2016. The Company adjusts it restricted stock and restricted stock units based upon actual forfeitures. Each restricted stock unit is equal to one share of Company stock and is redeemable only for stock.
o.
Fair value of financial instruments:
The following methods and assumptions were used by the Company in estimating their fair value disclosures for financial instruments using the required three-tier fair value hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value as follows: (Level 1) observable inputs such as quoted prices in active markets; (Level 2) inputs other than the quoted prices in active markets that are observable either directly or indirectly; and (Level 3) unobservable inputs in which there is little or no market data, which may require the Company to develop its own assumptions.
The carrying amounts of cash and cash equivalents, restricted collateral deposits, trade and other receivables, short-term bank credit, and trade payables approximate their fair value due to the short-term maturity of such instruments (Level 1).
The fair values of long-term promissory notes are estimated by discounting the future cash flows using current interest rates for loans of similar terms and maturities. The carrying amount of the long-term debt and contractual severance approximates the estimated fair values at December 31, 2018, based upon the Company’s ability to acquire similar debt or fulfill similar obligations at similar maturities (Level 2).
p.
Severance pay:
The Company’s liability for severance pay for its Israeli employees is calculated pursuant to Israeli severance pay law based on the most recent salary of the employees multiplied by the number of years of employment as of the balance sheet date. Israeli employees are entitled to one month’s salary for each year of employment, or a portion thereof. The Company’s liability for all of its Israeli employees is fully provided for by monthly deposits into severance pay funds held by insurance companies on behalf of the employees, insurance policies and by accrual. The fair value of these funds, which are considered Level 2 fair value measurements, is recorded as an asset in the Company’s consolidated balance sheet.
In addition, according to certain employment agreements, the Company is obligated to provide for special severance pay in addition to amounts due to certain employees pursuant to Israeli severance pay law. During the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company had made provisions of $78,014 and $106,080, respectively, for this special severance pay.
As of December 31, 2018 and 2017 the unfunded severance pay amounted to $285,495 and $141,956, respectively. Severance expenses from continuing operations for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016, amounted to $384,102, $727,835, and $1,388,814, respectively.
In April 2018, the Company made a severance payment of $263,000, upon the March 31, 2018 retirement of its former Chief Financial Officer.
In December 2016, the Company and its former Chief Executive Officer (“former Executive”) signed an agreement whereby the Company and the former Executive agreed to early termination of the former Executive’s employment agreement. The additional expense recorded in 2016, related to the termination, was approximately $926,243.
q.
Advertising costs:
The Company records advertising costs as incurred. Advertising expense for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016, was approximately $278,420, $93,664, and $71,730, respectively.
r.
New accounting pronouncements:
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). The new standard establishes a right-of-use (“ROU”) model that requires a lessee to record a ROU asset and a lease liability on the balance sheet for all leases with terms longer than 12 months. Leases will be classified as either finance or operating, with classification affecting the pattern of expense recognition in the income statement. In addition, in July 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-10, Codification Improvement to Topic 842
In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-11, Targeted Improvements to Topic 842. This amendment provides the Company with an additional and optional transition method to adopt the new leases standard. Under this new transition method, the Company can apply the new lease standard at the adoption date and recognize a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption and present the accounting on a prospective or go-forward basis instead of applying to the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements. The standard will be effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2019.
The Company has elected to apply the new transition method upon adoption of the new standard. The Company also elected the available practical expedients on adoption. In preparation for adoption of the standard, the Company finalized changes to systems, implemented internal controls and key processes to enable the preparation of financial information.
The new standard will likely have a material impact on the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheets. However, is not expected to have a material impact to the Company’s Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income, and Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows. The most significant impact will be the recognition of ROU assets and lease liabilities for operating leases and will result in additional ROU assets and lease liabilities for operating leases of approximately $3.9 million and $4.0 million, respectively, as of January 1, 2019.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15 (Topic 230), Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments. The amendments provide guidance on eight specific cash flow issues for which the current accounting framework does not provide specific guidance. The amendments are effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. The Company adopted the requirements of the new standard in the first quarter of 2018, as required by the new standard.

In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230), Restricted Cash, which requires that restricted cash be included with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning-of-period and end-of-period total amounts shown on the statement of cash flows. The provisions of ASU 2016-18 are effective for years beginning after December 15, 2017, with early adoption permitted. The Company adopted the requirements of the new standard in the first quarter of 2018 using the retrospective transition method, as required by the new standard. The adoption of this ASU had an immaterial impact to our consolidated statements of cash flows.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment. The new standard simplifies the subsequent measurement of goodwill and eliminates Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test and requires businesses to perform its annual goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount and recognizing an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value. The amendments are effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019 with early adoption permitted for goodwill impairment tests performed on testing dates after January 1, 2017. The Company does not expect that the adoption of the new standard will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-02, Income Statement-Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220), Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (“AOCI”). The accounting standard allows for the optional reclassification of stranded tax effects within accumulated other comprehensive income to retained earnings that arise due to the enactment of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “Tax Act”). The amount of the reclassification would reflect the effect of the change in the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate on the gross deferred tax amounts and related valuation allowances, if any, at the date of enactment of the Tax Act and other income tax effects of the Tax Act on items remaining in accumulated other comprehensive income. The standard, will be effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within that reporting period with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of its pending adoption of the new standard on its consolidated financial statements.
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Use of estimates:
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
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Reclassification:
Prior period amounts are reclassified, when necessary, to conform to the current period presentation.
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Business Combinations:
The Company recognizes the assets acquired and liabilities assumed in business combinations on the basis of their fair values at the date of acquisition. The Company assesses the fair value of assets, including intangible assets, using a variety of methods and each asset is measured at fair value from the perspective of a market participant. The method used to estimate the fair values of intangible assets incorporates significant assumptions regarding the estimates a market participant would make in order to evaluate an asset, including a market participant’s use of the asset and the appropriate discount rates for a market participant. Assets recorded from the perspective of a market participant that are determined to not have economic use for us are expensed immediately. Any excess purchase price over the fair value of the net tangible and intangible assets acquired is allocated to goodwill. Transaction costs and restructuring costs associated with a business combination are expensed as incurred.